برج ساعة باب الفرج وزيارة الامبراطور

في أواخر القرن التاسع عشر ، ظهرت في المنتديات السياسية الدولية الخارجية مصطلحان هامان جداً : "

المسألة الشرقية" و " الرجل المريض " و يقصد بهما الدولة العثمانية التي كانت في القرن السادس عشر

أكبر امبراطورية في العالم ...
و سبب ظهور هاتين الجملتين ، هو بدء ضعف الدولة العثمانية ، و اطماع الدول الاستعمارية القديمة و

الناشئة ، في الحصول على امتيازات في هذه الدولة ، بل استعمار بعض أجزائها .
ورث السلطان عبد الحميد الثاني هذه الدولة 1876-1908 م لإدارتها ، بل لحمايتها و الحفاظ عليها من

الطامعين ، وكانت مهمة صعبة ، وخاصة أطماع اليهود في فلسطين ، و لازال المؤرخون مختلفين على

هذه الناحية .
كان الصراع على الحفاظ على هذه الدولة كبيراً ، و التحاقها بركب الحداثة كبيراً أيضاً ولابد من تطويرها

و خاصة مد السكك الحديدية بعد ان انتهى دور القوافل و الجمال .
في تلك الفترة برزت الدولة الألمانية بعد قيام الاتحاد الألماني القوي في عام 1870 م ، ولابد لهذه الدولة ان

تفتش عن مشاريع تقوم بها ، و موقفاً دولياً ، ينقلها إلى مصافي الدول العظمى ، و رأت في الدولة العثمانية

مجالاً لذلك ، كما راى السلطان عبد الحميد الثاني ضرورة إيجاد حليف أو حلفاء يقفون إلى جانبه أمام

الاطماع ، و هكذا تلاقى الطرفان العثماني و الالماني .
في خريف عام 1898 م قام الامبراطور غليوم الثاني لزيارة الشرق لمدة شهر تقريباً بداية من تركيا و

انتهاء بفلسطين ، و كانت هذه الزيارة ذات بعد سياسي بلقائه السلطان العثماني عبد الحميد الثاني و إبراز

دعم الامبراطورية الألمانية للسلطنة العثمانية عسكرياً و دبلوماسياً و اقتصادياً .
تميزت زيارة الامبراطور بزيارة دمشق و مبانيها و ضريح صلاح الدين ، ولا ندري إلى اليوم ، إن كانت

زيارة مدينة حلب ضمن برنامجه أم لا ، لكننا نعرف أنه لم يزرها ، رغم أنها استعدت لاستقبال هذا العاهل

الألماني ، ولتظهر بداية حداثتها ، أمر السلطان بناء برج ساعة باب الفرج أو منارة حلب ، ووضع حجر

الأساس في الخامس عشر من ربيع الاول 1316هـ 1848 م و اختير مكانها في ساحة بالقرب من أسوارها

، وبُدِئَ في بنائها على أنقاض قسطل السلطان سليمان خان (بني على شاكلته بناء حديث أمام صيدلية

الاستقامة ) تمّ بناء هذا البرج بإشراف مهندس بلدية حلب شارل شارتييه ، وشارك المهندس بكر صدقي .

تميز هذا البناء من أربع واجهات و قاعدة واسعة وتعلو جدرانه بشكل مائل نحو الداخل ، زُيِّن بمقرصنات ،

و النجوم الشرقية المنتشرة في حلب وهي سداسية الشكل ( يعود اول رسم لها إلى الألف الرابع قبل الميلاد  

) و قبة عليا رائعة في القسم قبل الأخير من هذا البناء فتحات دائرية في كل واجهة من الواجهات الأربع

وضعت فيها ساعات دقاقة وجهان للتوقيت الشمسي و وجهان للتوقيت الغربي و ترى الساعات من بعيد و

تعلن عدد الساعات لاول مرة تقريباً و يعطى للوقت أهميته ، ولا يبقى متعلقاً  بالشمس و الصلاة ولكن

يتساءل الحلبيون هل ستعمل هذه الساعة ، و أنا أعلم أن اختصاصياً عرض على مجلس المدينة تشغيلها ....
د. محمود حريتاني
حلب 11/3/2012



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